View/Download PDF

Translate this page into:
Notice: Please configure GTranslate from WP-Admin -> Settings -> GTranslate to see it in action.

Case Report
2021
:12;
292
doi:
10.25259/SNI_918_2020

Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking images of meningiomas: Two case reports and literature review

Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein Israeli Faculty of Health Sciences, São Paulo, Brazil.
Department of Medicine, Catanduva Medical School (FAMECAUNIFIPA), Catanduva, Brazil.
Department of Medicine, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo School of Medical Sciences, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Department of Medicine, São Leopoldo Mandic, Campinas, Brazil.
Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Saúde de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, Brazil.
Department of Neurology, Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, Sorocaba, Brazil.
Corresponding author: Rafael Trindade Tatit, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein Israeli Faculty of Health Sciences, Sao Paulo, Brazil. rtrindadetatit@gmail.com
Licence

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

How to cite this article: Tatit RT, Raffa PE, de Almeida Motta GC, Bocchi AA, Guimaraes JL, Franceschini PR, et al. Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking images of meningiomas: Two case reports and literature review. Surg Neurol Int 2021;12:292.

Abstract

Background:

Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytic proliferative disorder classically as a massive cervical lymphadenopathy. However, over the years, extranodal locations were confirmed with the central nervous system involvement in less than 5% of cases, which is marked as a significant differential diagnosis of meningiomas, with which they are widely confused due to the similarity of their radiological images.

Case Description:

We report a 37-year-old man and 45-year-old man who were diagnosed with intracranial RDD but whose radiological images mimic meningiomas, requiring anatomopathological and tumor’s immunohistochemistry for definitive diagnosis. Moreover, a review of 184 publications with 285 cases of intracranial involvement of this disease was also performed, comparing these findings with those brought in the previous studies.

Conclusion:

Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman tumors should always be remembered as differential diagnosis of meningiomas since they are similar radiologically and macroscopically. Once remembered and diagnosed, the lesion must be treated following the same pattern of resection done in meningiomas and, treatment’s differences will not occur in the surgical excision technique, but in complementary chemotherapy implementation, radiotherapy, and even with radiosurgery aid, depending on the case. Thus, it is possible to obtain better results than with just the isolated surgical procedure.

Keywords

Central nervous system
Histiocytosis
Magnetic resonance imaging
Meningioma
Rosai-Dorfman disease

INTRODUCTION

Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by accumulation of activated histiocytes in the affected tissues. Widely heterogeneous and with a variety of clinical phenotypes, it may be present from the isolated form to the form in association with other diseases such as autoimmune,[49,197] hereditary,[125,131,211] or malignant.[6,69,112,116,136] Its importance is marked as a significant differential diagnosis of meningiomas, with which they are widely confused due to the similarity of their radiological images, being differentiated by surgically resected tissue histopathological analysis.[63,132,148,180]

His first description dates back to 1965 by a French pathologist - Pierre Paul Louis Lucien Destombes,[40] and 4 years later was exhaustively studied by Rosai and Dorfman, who analyzed 34 cases of the same disease under the name of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy.[155] Classically, RDD presents as a bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy, but in 43% of patients the disease presents as an extranodal location.[49] It is important to point out that RDD is a rare disease, with prevalence of approximately 1:200,000 people,[122] with involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) occurring in less than 5% of cases of RDD and, within this portion, approximately 75% present themselves as intracranial lesions and 25% as spinal lesions.[14] As for the age group, nodal RDD is more frequently observed in children and young adults (mean age 20.6 years), being more present in men (male/female ratio 1.4:1).[99,105,149] However, when intracranial RDD is involved, the age group most affected changes, generally affecting adult men in the fourth and fifth decades of life (mean age 39.5 years).[27,63]

In intracranial RDD, the most involved structures are the suprasellar region, cerebral convexity, parasagittal region, cavernous sinus, and petroclival region,[99,149] with infratentorial parenchymal lesions being the most frequent,[198] while supratentorial, intraventricular, and multifocal lesions are observed with significantly lower frequency.[130,148] Radiologically, intracranial RDD is commonly confused with meningioma[63,132,148,180] and requires tumor histopathology and immunohistochemistry for its definitive diagnosis. In anatomopathological examination of the lesions, histiocytes with large and discolored cytoplasm with large hypochromatic nucleus and prominent nucleolus are present.[40] Emperipolesis is a useful finding, although not necessary for diagnosis.[42] In immunohistochemical examination, histiocytes are positive for S-100 and CD-68 protein and negative for CD1a[27,99,156] and moreover for symptoms, usual presentations of intracranial RDD include seizures, headache, cranial nerve deficits, hemiparesis, and dysphasia,[87] usually evolving over weeks or months.[161]

The present study reports two cases of RDD with intracranial involvement, one of them with follow-up of more than 15 years. A review of 184 publications with 285 cases of RDD with CNS involvement (CNS-RDD) was also performed, comparing these findings with those brought in the previous studies. For identifying the studies, the MeSH tool from PubMed database was used, using the keywords “Histiocytosis, Sinus” restrict to MeSH Major Topic (entry terms: histiocytoses, Sinus; Sinus Histiocytoses; Sinus Histiocytosis; RDD; Disease, Rosai-Dorfman; RDD; Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy; DestombesRosai-Dorfman Syndrome; Destombes Rosai Dorfman Syndrome; and Syndrome, Destombes-Rosai-Dorfman) and the keyword “Central Nervous System;” no filter was used for languages, date of publication or type of study. In addition, manual searches were performed based on the studies found by the initial electronic search. All articles including new cases of the disease and containing basic information (sex, age, location of the pathology, and if there was isolated involvement of the CNS) were included in the study.

CASES REPORTS

First case report

Male patient, 37 years old, presented 4 years before with painless left supraclavicular adenomegaly, with progressive increase followed by intense pain in the left clavicle after physical activity. Imaging examinations demonstrated the presence of bone infiltration, supraclavicular and infraclavicular adenomegaly, as well as lesions in the orbit and cranial cap. Biopsy of supraclavicular lymph node confirmed lymphadenitis with massive sinus histiocytosis compatible with RDD, with immunohistochemical examination demonstrating CD68 and S100 positive and CD30 and CD1a negative. The patient initially presented an excellent response with corticoids using, noting significant regression of adenomegaly, and general improvement of symptoms. In the last year, however, he began to refer to migratory arthralgia with an increase in cervical adenomegalies, requiring the continuous use of corticoids and increased doses in exacerbations, and he presented with pulsatile headache which was often disabling. A skull MRI was performed which revealed an expansive lesion in the left frontal region [Figure 1], requiring hospitalization, and use of prophylactic anticonvulsant. A microsurgery was performed for total resection of the brain tumor [Figure 2], which in the anatomopathological examination showed proliferation of histiocytes of ample cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei with prominent nucleoli, forming aggregates surrounded by lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate and with emperipolesis. The immunohistochemical examination demonstrated histiocytes positive for S-100 and CD-68 protein and negative for CD1a, thus confirming the diagnosis of RDD. A panel of mutations for solid tumors was also performed by Next-Generation Sequencing, with no relevant changes in the areas of interest of the analyzed genes. The patient was discharged 3 days later, remaining in follow-up until now well and without recurrence.

Figure 1:: Magnetic resonance imaging showing expansive lesion in the left frontal region with left to right mass effect and surrounding edema. (a) Axial gadolinium-enhanced image. (b) Axial FLAIR. (c) Axial T2-weighted.
Figure 2:: Magnetic resonance imaging at the post operated showed total resection of the left frontal tumor associated with edema, determining deletion of the local cortical grooves, compression of the frontal horn of the left lateral ventricle and contralateral midline deviation. (a) Axial gadolinium-enhanced image. (b) Axial T2-weighted.

Second case report

Male patient, 45 years old, receives specialized neurological care with convergent strabismus and complaint of diplopia, headache, ringing in the left ear and hypoacusis for 6 months. A gadolinium-contrasted MRI examination was requested, which demonstrated a lesion in the petroclival region invading the cavernous sinus with extension into the posterior fossa, with contrast uptake compatible with meningioma. MRI also showed that the lesion reached the cervical region, descending through the petroclival portion, and bordering the clivus [Figure 3]. The patient was then submitted to a combined subtemporal and presigmoid route for partial resection – leaving only part of the lesion in the middle fossa [Figure 4] – of the possible meningioma, which after anatomopathological analysis was concluded it was not a meningioma but a case of RDD. Then, continuous chemotherapy treatment with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and radiotherapy in specialized oncology services was started for 2 years and submitted to several sections throughout this period. The patient was operated on with tumor partial resection in 2005, remaining in follow-up until now without recurrence.

Figure 3:: Magnetic resonance imaging preoperated showing expansive lesion in the left petroclival region with left to right mass effect, invading the cavernous sinus with extension into the posterior fossa and reach the cervical region, descending through the petroclival portion, bordering the clivus. Lesion with contrast enhances compatible with meningioma. (a) Coronal gadolinium-enhanced image (GEI). (b and c) Axial GEI.
Figure 4:: (a-c) Magnetic resonance imaging at the post operated showed parcial resection of the left petroclival tumor with remaining lesion in the middle fossa. Axial gadolinium-enhanced image.

DISCUSSION

According to 285 RDD literature reviewed cases [15,7,9,10,1224,2639,41,44-48,50-54,56-68,70,72-96,98,99,102-111,113-115,117-123,126-129,130,132-135,137-142,144,146-148,150-154,157-161,163-175,177,178,181-185,187-191,193-196,198,200,202-210,212-215,217-221] added two newly cases presented in this study [Tables 1 and 2], we obtained a male/female ratio of 1.9:1 and a mean of 38.51 years and a median of 38 years of age, with 50% of patients aged between 26 and 53 years. The exclusively intracranial involvement was present in 77% (n = 221) of RDD cases, with a mean age of 39.5 years, while the exclusively spinal involvement was present in only 14% (n = 40) of them and with a mean age of 36.4 years. The mean age values obtained are quite close to the mean of 39.5 years described in the previous studies,[27,63] mainly in cases with exclusive intracranial involvement. However, the 1.9:1 male/female ratio obtained in our review was much more remarkable in the prevalence of men than the 1.4:1 in the previous studies.[99,105,149]

Table 1:: Characteristics of CNS-RDD cases according to present and previous reports from references.[1-5,7,9,10,12-24,26-39,41,44-48,50-54,56-68,70,72-96,98,99,102-111,113-115,117-123,126-129,130,132-135,137-142,144,146-148,150-154,157-161,163-1-75,177,178,181-185,187-191,193-196,198,200,202-210,212-215,217-221]
Table 2:: Central nervous system involvement in 287 cases of Rosai-Dorfman disease.[1-5,7,9,10,12-24,26-39,41,44-48,50-54,56-68,70,72-96,98,99,102-111,113-115,117-123,126-129,130,132-135,137-142,144,146-148,150-154,157-161,163-175,177,178,181-185,187-191,193-196,198,200,202-210,212-215,217-221]

On the other hand, comparing the frequencies of intracranial or spinal involvement according to the systemic or non-systemic involvement of the disease, RDD with isolated CNS involvement, reported in 77% (n = 221) of all cases of CNS-RDD, showed that 84% (n = 186) of isolated cases of the CNS had exclusively intracranial involvement and only 10% (n = 23) had exclusively spinal involvement. As for systemics CNS-RDD cases, the exclusively intracranial involvement occurred in 56% (n = 37) of the cases, while the exclusively spinal involvement was present in 26% (n = 17) of them. Therefore, it should be noted that comparing RDD with isolated CNS involvement, systemic CNS-RDD has a lower prevalence of exclusively intracranial involvement and a greater involvement of the spinal cord; in 26% (n = 17) of the cases with systemic presentation there was exclusive involvement of the spinal and in approximately 18% (n = 12) of the cases there was intracranial and spinal involvement. Thus, it is interesting to note that when RDD has systemic involvement, spinal cord involvement is more frequent than in relation to RDD with exclusive CNS involvement, which may have different explanations, such as perhaps because of systemic disease focus origin, usually sinus and with massive lymphadenopathy in the region, be closer to the spinal cord, this will somehow facilitate the disease spread to this nearest neural structure. This would mean that, once systemic RDD was present, it could spread more easily to any location in the CNS, without maintaining the preferential intracranial involvement of CNS exclusive cases.

The typical radiological findings of intracranial RDD show dural-based, extra-axial, well-circumscribed masses mimicking meningioma with MRI usually reveals multiple well-defined, dural-based or intraventricular, extra-axial masses with possible perilesional cerebral edema.[80] Intracranial RDD CT typically presents homogeneous hyperdense or isodense masses, but MRI is currently the optimal diagnostic modality for evaluating lesions. On T1-weighted images, the lesions usually appear as isointense or hyperintense masses with clear borders relative to the peripheral brain parenchyma[56,150,187,196,201] and possible perilesional cerebral edema hypo or isointense.[80] While on T2-weighted images, the lesions usually appear as isointense masses with possible intralesional hypointense foci,[56,150,187,196,201] although studies have described rather low signal intensity on in this type of image.[7,87,196] On the other hand, meningiomas on T2-weighted MR images show low to high signal intensity, varying this according to the histological subtype, and on angiograms are commonly seen as hypervascular lesions,[25] whereas in RDD this results are variable.[76,96] On RDD, in addition, on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images with gadolinium, the lesions are markedly enhanced, homogeneously or inhomogeneously, and the dural tail sign can commonly be found.[1,47,56,94,150,184,187,196,201] Recently, new MRI sequences have been recommended for the diagnosis of RDD, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), susceptibility-weighted imaging, and perfusion-weighted imaging,[71,77] in addition, the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT has been described to diagnose relapsed intracranial RDD of the hypothalamus in a patient.[39] MRI spectroscopy meningiomas have been shown to have elevated Cho and decreased NAA, which is also seen in many other neoplastic processes, decrease in Cr and prominent Ala, much more so than in other neoplastic processes and is considered a spectroscopic signature for meningiomas.[176] On the other hand, in RDD lesions, spectroscopy generally shows elevated lipid and N-acetyl aspartate peaks, suggestive of granulomatous inflammatory pathology, and a raised choline peak.[199] Furthermore, perfusion MRI imaging can provide useful information on meningioma vascularity which is not available from conventional MRI. Measurement of maximal rCBV and corresponding rMTE values in the peritumoral edema is useful in the preoperative differentiation between benign and malignant meningiomas[216] and the relatively low rCBV perfusion values in CNS-RDD.[199] Regarding to the neuroimaging, the best diagnostic clues for diagnosing CNSRDD appear to be represented by hypo-isointensity in the T2-weighted sequences and the relatively low rCBV perfusion values, likely due to abundant fibrous tissue; however, these findings are not specific and not always present, and the final diagnosis is often still histological.[199] Therefore, preoperative radiological findings using current MRI sequences are difficult to distinguish between meningiomas and RDD; however, it has already been described that the absence of hyperostosis, bony erosion, or calcification – characteristically absent in the RDD[177] – should suggest RDD as a differential diagnosis of meningiomas.[150]

As for the two reported cases of RDD, they were very similar to the expected age group and sex grouping, according to the literature and our review. As for the location of the lesion, which can happen in many regions, including the supratentorial region, where meningiomas occur and in which one of them mimics, the two cases presented in this study are very representative, especially the second one, since at first moment it was thought that it was one of those. Furthermore, the involvement reaching the cervical portion of the second case is compatible with a higher prevalence location of spinal cord injuries according to previous studies.[101] Regarding its severity, although the involvement of CNS is often progressive and fatal, patients undergoing surgical resection have favorable prognosis in many cases.[180] However, surgical resection without complementary or additional therapy is frequently associated with recurrences of the disease[47] and should be associated with complementary or adjuvant treatments. As examples of these, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which were very successful in the present case, may be indicated and instituted as several authors suggest,[8,9,43,55,97,124,145,153,162,179,186] especially when radical surgical resection of the tumor is not possible – which would be the best approach as several authors defend.[70,151,165] Treatment of resectable intracranial RDD and high risk by means of radiosurgery may also be a therapeutic option to be instituted,[45] obtaining very favorable results when combined with neurosurgical excision.[65,163,201] Furthermore, possibly promising, the use of Brachytherapy, a special way of applying radiation, may be a possible option to be analyzed, having already well documented therapeutic results in the treatment of other pathologies such as gliomas and some extracranial solid tumors.[11,100,143,192,222] Alternatively, the use of glucocorticoids has also shown quite beneficial effects on the regression and resolution of multiple and isolated intracranial lesions[47,126,217] and should be considered as an effective option in the treatment of RDD in certain cases where surgical resection is not applicable.

More importantly, surgical resection should follow the same pattern as meningiomas, since the texture of both is very similar, and it is extremely unlikely that with only radiological images the two pathologies can be differentiated before neurosurgical removal for anatomopathological analysis. At present, the best treatment for intracranial RDD involves surgical excision,[201] as employed in the two cases reported here.

CONCLUSION

Thus, we conclude that intracranial Rosai-Dorfman tumors should always be remembered as differential diagnosis of meningiomas, since they are similar radiologically and macroscopically. Once remembered and diagnosed, the lesion must be treated following the same pattern of resection done in meningiomas and, treatment’s differences will not occur in the surgical excision technique, but in complementary chemotherapy implementation, radiotherapy, and even with radiosurgery aid, depending on the case. Thus, it is possible to obtain better results than with just the isolated surgical procedure.

Declaration of patient consent

Patient’s consent not required as patients identity is not disclosed or compromised.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

REFERENCES

  1. , , , , . Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease: Report of two cases and a review of the literature. Turk Neurosurg. 2013;23:509-13.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. , , , , , . Diagnosis and management of Rosai-Dorfman disease involving the central nervous system. Neurol Res. 2010;32:572-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. , , , . All that glitters is not gold: Rosai-Dorfman as a single cerebellar necrotic lesion. BMJ Case Rep. 2019;12:e228483.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. , , , , , . MRI and CT findings of isolated intracranial RosaiDorfman disease in a child. Neuroradiol J. 2016;29:146-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. , , , , . Natural course of lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis. Clin Neuropathol. 2001;20:229-32.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. , , , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease following bone marrow transplantation for pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;51:433-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease isolated to the central nervous system: A report of 11 cases. Mod Pathol. 2001;14:172-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. , , , , , , . Dramatic clinical efficacy of cladribine in Rosai-Dorfman disease and evolution of the cytokine profile: Towards a new therapeutic approach. Haematologica. 2006;91:ECR52-2.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. , , , . Mercaptopurine treatment in an adult man with orbital and intracranial RosaiDorfman disease. Case Rep Neurol Med. 2016;2016:1030478.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. , , , , , , . Leptomeningeal and orbital benign lymphophagocytic histiocytosis. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1988;69:610-2.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. , , , , . Curative brachytherapy for recurrent/residual tongue cancer. Strahlenther Onkol. 2007;183:133-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. , , , , . Craniocervical Rosai-Dorfman disease involving the vertebral artery: Case report and literature review. World Neurosurg. 2020;133:69-73.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. , , , . Choroid plexus involvement in Rosai-Dorfman disease. Neurol India. 2017;65:222-3.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. , , , , , , . Sinus histiocytosis (Destombes-RosaiDorfman disease) revealed by paraplegia. Arch Pédiatr. 1999;6:173-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. , , , , , . Isolated cerebellar intraparenchymal Rosai-Dorfman disease--case report and review of literature. Br J Neurosurg. 2011;25:292-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. , , , , . A 68-year-old woman with a left orbital and temporal mass. Brain Pathol. 2018;28:133-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. , , . Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease with multiple spinal lesions: A rare presentation. Surg Neurol. 2006;65:308-11.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. , , . Isolated intracranial rosaidorfman disease involving the meninges: Report of a rare case. Turk Neurosurg. 2015;25:186-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. , , , . Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy--isolated suprasellar involvement. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1992;55:156-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. , , , , . Tumor arising in the periventricular region. Neuropathology. 2009;29:101-3.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. , , , . Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease: Case report and review of the literature. World Neurosurg. 2020;137:239-42.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. , , , , . The diagnostic difficulties of meningeal and intracerebral plasma cell granulomas--presentation of three cases. J Neurol. 2003;250:1302-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. , , , . A 63 year old woman with white matter lesions and pachymeningeal inflammation. Brain Pathol. 2013;23:225-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. , , . Disseminated sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: Its pathologic aspects. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1982;106:13-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. , . Atlas of tumor pathology. In: Tumors of the Central Nervous System. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; . p. 259-86.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. , , , , , . Intracerebral multifocal Rosai-Dorfman disease. J Clin Neurosci. 2012;19:1308-10.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. , , , , . Solitary intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease: Case report and literature review. J Int Med Res. 2011;39:2045-50.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. , . Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy presenting as a meningioma. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1987;13:391-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. , . May 2003: 57-year-old-woman with acute loss of strength in her right upper extremity and slurred speech. Brain Pathol. 2003;13:641-2.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. , , , , , . A rare case of intracranial rosai-dorfman disease mimicking multiple meningiomas. A case report and review of the literature. Neuroradiol J. 2012;25:569-74.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. , , , , . Subconjunctival masses associated with central nervous system rosai-dorfman disease. Cornea. 2011;30:237-40.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting as spinal tumor. A case report with ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1985;67:1427-31.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. . Crush cytology of Rosai-Dorfman disease of the central nervous system. A report of 2 cases. Acta Cytol. 2003;47:1111-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. , , , . A singular case of intracranial sinus histiocytosis without massive lymphadenopathy: Isolated Rosai-Dorfman disease of the hypothalamus. J Neurol Surg Part A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2014;76:244-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. , . Extranodal sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: Isolated central nervous system involvement mimicking meningioma. South Med J. 1996;89:621-3.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. , . Rosai-Dorfman disease: Management of CNS and systemic involvement. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2012;10:199-202.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. , , , , , , . Intracranial lesions mimicking neoplasms. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009;133:101-23.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. , , . Isolated intracranial involvement in Rosai-Dorfman disease: A report of two cases and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1998;122:161-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. , , , , , . 18F-FDG PET/CT findings in a patient with isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease. Clin Nucl Med. 2013;38:e50-52.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. . Adenitis with lipid excess, in children or young adults, seen in the Antilles and in Mali(4 cases) Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales. 1965;58:1169-75.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. , , , , , , . Cerebral localization of Rosai-Dorfman disease in a child. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2007;107:147-51.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. , , , , , , . Consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and clinical management of Erdheim-Chester disease. Blood. 2014;124:483-92.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. , , , , , , . Phase 2 trial of single-agent cobimetinib for adults with BRAF V600-mutant and wild-type histiocytic disorders. Blood. 2017;130:257.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. , , , . RosaiDorfman disease causing spinal cord compression. Neurosurgery. 2008;62:E977-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. , , , , . Stereotactic interstitial radiosurgery for intracranial RosaiDorfman disease. A novel therapeutic approach. Strahlenther Onkol. 2009;185:109-12.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. , , , . Rare presentation of Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking a cervical intramedullary spinal cord tumor. World Neurosurg. 2014;81:442.e7-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. , , , , , , . Meningeal Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking meningioma. Ann Hematol. 2014;93:937-40.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. , , , , , , . Fatal worsening of late-onset cerebellar ataxia with neuronal intranuclear inclusions due to superimposed meningeal RosaiDorfman disease. Mov Disord. 2008;23:1488-90.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. , , . Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease): Review of the entity. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1990;7:19-73.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. , , , . The neurologic manifestations of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy. Neurology. 1982;32:365-72.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. , . Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease involving the meninges. South Med J. 2002;95:1101-2.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. , , , , , . Sinus histiocytosis presenting as a mediastinal mass. Chest. 1984;86:266-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. , , , , , , . Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease without dural attachment--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2011;51:136-40.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. , , , . Isolated cerebellar involvement in Rosai-Dorfman disease: Case report. Neurosurgery. 2000;46:479-81.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. , , , , , , . Mutually exclusive recurrent KRAS and MAP2K1 mutations in Rosai-Dorfman disease. Mod Pathol. 2017;30:1367-77.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking neurofibromatosis: Case presentation and review of the literature. Clin Radiol. 2004;59:625-30.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. , , , , . Isolated intracranial Rosai Dorfman disease masquerading as meningioma: A case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2007;50:382-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. , , , . A case of rapidly progressive Rosai-Dorfman disease restricted to the central nervous system. Zentralbl Neurochir. 2005;66:142-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. , , , , . Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking meningioma in a child. Br J Neurosurg. 2004;18:293-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. , , . Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease: A report of seven cases with review of literature. Austin J Clin Pathol. 2014;1:1013.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. , , . An unusual cause of proptosis. BMJ Case Rep. 2015;2015:bcr2015211741.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. , , , , , , . Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease in a child mimicking bilateral giant petroclival meningiomas: A case report and review of literature. Child’s Nerv Syst. 2006;22:1194-200.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. , , , . Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking meningioma in a child: A case report and review of the literature. Br J Radiol. 2011;84:e138-41.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. , , . Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy and paraparesis: Remission with chemotherapy. A case report. Cancer. 1978;42:77-80.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. , , , , , . Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease treated with microsurgical resection and stereotactic radiosurgery. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2003;98:165-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking meningioma. Pan Arab J Neurosurg. 2007;11:89-94.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. , . Atypical presentation of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy as an epidural spinal cord tumor: A case presentation and literature review. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2005;18:193-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. , , , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease with extranodal involvement. Laryngoscope. 2014;124:701-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. , , , , , . Intraperitoneal Rosai-Dorfman disease associated with clear cell sarcoma: First case report. Pathology. 2016;48:742-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease manifesting as intracranial and intraorbital lesion. J Neurooncol. 2009;92:117-20.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. , , , , , . Advanced MRI in Rosai-Dorfman disease: Correlation with histopathology. J Neuroradiol. 2011;38:113-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. , , , , . Rosai-Dorman disease causing cervical myelopathy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000;25:1453-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. , , , . Extradural Brain Mass in a 64-Year-Old Man. Brain Pathol. 2017;27:115-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. , , , , , . Redefining the prevalence of dural involvement in Rosai-Dorfman disease of the central nervous system. World Neurosurg. 2016;90:702.e13-20.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease of rare isolated spinal involvement: Report of 4 cases and literature review. World Neurosurg. 2016;85:367.e11-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. , , , , . Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease: Case report and literature review. Pathol Int. 1998;48:396-402.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. , , , , , , . MR perfusion of intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking meningioma. J Neuroradiol. 2011;38:133-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. , , , , , . A lethal intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease of the brainstem diagnosed at autopsy. Pathol Int. 2015;65:549-53.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. , , , . RosaiDorfman disease with paravertebral and epidural thoracic spine involvement: A case report and literature review. Radiol Case Rep. 2020;15:484-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. , . Intracranial meningeal Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking multiple meningiomas: 3 Case reports and a literature review. World Neurosurg. 2018;120:382-90.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. , , , , , . Isolated cerebellar Rosai-Dorfman granuloma mimicking Lhermitte-Duclos disease: Case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009;4:118-20.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. , . Extranodal sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy presenting as an intramedullary spinal cord tumor: A case report. Am J Hematol. 1997;54:253-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. , , , , , , . Cranio-spinal Rosai Dorfman disease: Case series and literature review. Br J Neurosurg. 2019;33:176-83.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. , , , , , . Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking multiple meningiomas. Rev Med Brux. 2013;34:112-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. , , , . Extranodal sinus histiocytosis (Rosai-Dorfman disease) of the brain parenchyma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2003;145:145-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. , , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease involving the cranial base, paranasal sinuses and spinal cord. Clin Neuropathol. 2005;24:194-200.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking parasagittal meningioma: Case presentation and review of literature. Surg Neurol. 2000;53:452-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. , , . Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: A case of simultaneous upper respiratory tract and CNS disease without lymphadenopathy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1993;14:219-22.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. , , , , . Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking meningioma. Clin Neuropathol. 2004;23:204-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting as a pituitary tumour. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999;50:133-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. , , , . Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy and spinal epidural involvement: A case report and review of the literature. Cancer. 1976;38:1614-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting with widespread intracranial and spinal cord involvement. Neurology. 2006;67:1551-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. , , , , . Extensive multifocal Rosai-Dorfman disease involving the central nervous system and paranasal sinuses. Laryngoscope. 2011;121:S234-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking multiple meningioma: Case report. Neurosurgery. 1995;36:1185-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. , , , , , . Meningeal Rosai-Dorfman disease: Report of three cases and literature review. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2001;18:49-54.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. , , , , , , . Meningeal sinus histiocytosis mimicking lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1996;84:1051-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. , , , , . Extranodal multifocal Rosai-Dorfman disease: Response to 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine treatment. Int J Hematol. 2009;89:58-62.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. , , , . FDG PET/CT image for a Rosai-Dorfman disease with pituitary and bone involvement in a pediatric patient. Clin Nucl Med. 2019;44:873-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. , , , . Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease (sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy) Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:515-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. , , , , , , . Brachytherapy: Results of two different therapy strategies for patients with primary glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer. 2000;88:2796-802.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease isolated to the thoracic epidural spine. J Radiol Case Rep. 2015;9:6-16.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. , , . Isolated intracranial Rosai Dorfman disease. Neurol India. 2011;59:443-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. , , , . RosaiDorfman disease mimicking chronic subdural hematoma. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:1293-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  104. , , . Intracranial rosai-dorfman disease. Case Rep Radiol. 2014;2014:724379.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease: A case report with nodal and cutaneous involvement and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol. 2014;36:353-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. , , , . The digestive system manifestations of Rosai-Dorfman disease (sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy): Review of 11 cases. Hum Pathol. 2000;31:380-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. , , , , , . Successful treatment with azathioprine of relapsing Rosai-Dorfman disease of the central nervous system. J Neurosurg. 2012;117:486-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. , , , , , , . Carotid artery occlusion in a patient with intracranial RosaiDorfman disease. J Hong Kong Coll Radiol. 2003;6:211-3.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. , , , . Isolated intracranial RosaiDorfman disease presenting as mental deterioration. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2012;114:1070-3.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. , , , . Isolated central nervous system Rosai-Dorfman disease and breast cancer: An unusual presentation. Int J Neurosci. 2019;129:393-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. , , , , , , . Long-term survival in a patient with Rosai-Dorfman disease treated with interferon-alpha. Eur J Cancer. 1995;31A:2427-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. , , , , , . Intestinal occlusion caused by Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking colonic diverticulitis. Pathol Res Pract. 2007;203:233-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  113. , . Immunohistochemical characterization of the histiocytes in sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: Analysis of an extranodal case. Hum Pathol. 1989;20:711-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  114. , , , . MR findings of RosaiDorfman disease in sellar and suprasellar region. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:1231-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  115. , , , , . Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease with unusual transcranial extension. J Neuroimaging. 2012;22:312-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  116. , , , . Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy and malignant lymphoma involving the same lymph node: A report of four cases and review of the literature. Mod Pathol. 2000;13:414-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  117. , . Leptomeningeal Rosai-Dorfman disease. J Neuroradiol. 2010;37:196-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. , , , , . Cerebral Rosai-Dorfman disease. Childs Nerv Syst. 2015;31:529-32.
    [Google Scholar]
  119. , , , . Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease in a child. Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30:E148-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  120. , , , , , , . Characteristics of Rosai-Dorfman disease primarily involved in the central nervous system: 3 Case reports and review of literature. World Neurosurg. 2017;97:58-63.
    [Google Scholar]
  121. , , , . Lung cancer and Rosai-Dorfman’s disease. A clinicopathological study. Strahlenther Onkol. 2003;179:486-92.
    [Google Scholar]
  122. , , , , . Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease. J Res Med Sci. 2012;17:304-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  123. , , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting as cervical extradural lesion: A case report with review of literature. Neurol India. 2011;59:438-42.
    [Google Scholar]
  124. , , , , , . Steroid-resistant extranodal rosai-dorfman disease of cheek mass and ptosis treated with radiation therapy. Case Rep Hematol. 2013;2013:428297.
    [Google Scholar]
  125. , , , , , , . Histologic features of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy in patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29:903-11.
    [Google Scholar]
  126. , , , . Regression of intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease following corticosteroid therapy: Case report. J Neurosurg. 2006;104:840-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  127. , , , , , , . 8-year-old child with a lesion in the left nucleus lentiformis. Brain Pathol. 2008;18:598-601.
    [Google Scholar]
  128. , , . Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy and unusual extranodal manifestations. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1985;109:867-70.
    [Google Scholar]
  129. , , , , . Inflammatory meningeal masses of unexplained origin. An ultrastructural and immunological study. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1983;42:453-68.
    [Google Scholar]
  130. , , , , . Isolated Rosai-Dorfman disease of the fourth ventricle. Case illustration. J Neurosurg. 2000;92:890.
    [Google Scholar]
  131. , , , , , , . Mutations in SLC29A3, encoding an equilibrative nucleoside transporter ENT3, cause a familial histiocytosis syndrome (Faisalabad histiocytosis) and familial Rosai-Dorfman disease. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000833.
    [Google Scholar]
  132. , , , . Rosai Dorfman disease: Case with extensive dural involvement and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. J Neurol Sci. 2012;314:152-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  133. , . Extranodal (dural) Rosai-Dorfman disease radiologically and histologically mimicking meningioma: A case report. Anal Quant Cytopathol Histopathol. 2015;37:144-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  134. , , , . Primary intracerebral rosai-dorfman disease: A case report. J Neurooncol. 2000;47:73-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  135. , . Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy localized to the sella. Br J Neurosurg. 1995;9:551-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  136. , , , , , , . Co-occurrence of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Rosai-Dorfman disease: Possible relationship of two histiocytic disorders in rare cases. Mod Pathol. 2010;23:1616-23.
    [Google Scholar]
  137. , , . Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy. Case report and review of a multisystemic disease with cutaneous infiltrates. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:1322-32.
    [Google Scholar]
  138. . Isolated extranodal sinus histiocytosis presenting as an intramedullary spinal cord tumor with paraplegia. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1996;85:692-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  139. , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting as a meningioma. Indian J Cancer. 1996;33:192-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  140. , , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting as cervical radiculopathy. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013;115:808-10.
    [Google Scholar]
  141. , . Isolated intraventricular RosaiDorfman disease. Asian J Neurosurg. 2018;13:1285-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  142. , , , . Relapsing intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;71:538-41.
    [Google Scholar]
  143. , , , , , , . Health-related quality of life after permanent interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer: Correlation with postimplant CT scan parameters. Strahlenther Onkol. 2006;182:660-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  144. , . Dural-based Rosai-Dorfman disease: Differential diagnostic considerations. J Clin Neurosci. 2014;21:1872-3.
    [Google Scholar]
  145. , , , , , , . Treatment of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease): Report of a case and literature review. Am J Hematol. 2002;69:67-71.
    [Google Scholar]
  146. , , , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease of the central nervous system. J Clin Neurosci. 2005;12:656-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  147. , , , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease with spinal and multiple intracranial involvement: A case report and literature review. Br J Neurosurg. 2019;18:1-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  148. , , , , . Multiple involvement of the central nervous system in RosaiDorfman disease. Pediatr Neurol. 2012;46:54-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  149. , , , . Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease with relapsing spinal lesions. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:3087-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  150. , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease in neuroradiology: Imaging findings in a series of 10 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;196:W187-93.
    [Google Scholar]
  151. , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting with multiple orbital and intracranial masses. Acta Neuropathol. 1996;91:554-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  152. , , , , , , . BRAF mutation leading to central nervous system rosai-dorfman disease. Ann Neurol. 2018;84:147-52.
    [Google Scholar]
  153. , , , . Long-term follow-up in two cases of intracranial Rosai-Dorfman Disease complicated by incomplete resection and recurrence. Surg Neurol Int. 2014;5:30.
    [Google Scholar]
  154. , , , , . A new case of cervical intramedullary sinus histiocytosis causing paraplegia and review of the literature. Surg Neurol Int. 2016;7:9.
    [Google Scholar]
  155. , . Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy. A newly recognized benign clinicopathological entity. Arch Pathol. 1969;87:63-70.
    [Google Scholar]
  156. . Rosai and Ackerman’s Surgical Pathology. (10th ed). New York: Elsevier Health Sciences; .
    [Google Scholar]
  157. , , , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease involving the neurohypophysis. Pituitary. 2010;13:256-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  158. , , , . Intracranial dural histiocytosis. Br J Neurosurg. 2009;23:449-54.
    [Google Scholar]
  159. , , , , . Intracranial rosai-dorfman: A clinical challenge. Neurologist. 2011;17:117-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  160. , , , . Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: A case of multiple dural involvement. Brain Tumor Pathol. 1998;15:63-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  161. , , , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease of the central nervous system: Report of 6 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2014;93:165-75.
    [Google Scholar]
  162. , , , , , , . A single case of rosai-dorfman disease marked by pathologic fractures, kidney failure, and liver cirrhosis treated with single-agent cladribine. Front Oncol. 2014;4:297.
    [Google Scholar]
  163. , , , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting with multiple intracranial and intraspinal masses: A case report. No Shinkei Geka. 2003;31:1199-204.
    [Google Scholar]
  164. , , , , , . Extra-osseous involvement of Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34:313-21.
    [Google Scholar]
  165. , , , , , . Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease with orbital extension. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:1108-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  166. , , , , . Presumed recurrence of intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease as a cervical spine tumor. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2007;149:425-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  167. , , , , , , . When a meningioma isn’t: Endoscopic endonasal orbital decompression and biopsy of skull base Rosai-Dorfman disease treated previously with empiric radiation therapy. World Neurosurg. 2020;135:141-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  168. , , , . Isolated extranodal intracranial sinus histiocytosis in a 5-year-old boy. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1993;79:769-73.
    [Google Scholar]
  169. , , , , . Central nervous system involvement in Rosai-Dorfman disease: Report of a case with a review of the literature. Neuropathology. 1999;19:341-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  170. , , , , . Pathologic quiz case: A 48 year-old woman with a dural-based intracranial tumor. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2001;125:1115-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  171. , , . A new clinical entity mimicking meningioma diagnosed pathologically as rosai-dorfman disease. Skull Base Surg. 1998;8:87-92.
    [Google Scholar]
  172. , , , , . Clinical Reasoning: Compressive optic neuropathy secondary to intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease. Neurology. 2015;85:e89-92.
    [Google Scholar]
  173. , , , , , , . Meningeal nodules with features of extranodal sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy. Am J Surg Pathol. 1989;13:406-12.
    [Google Scholar]
  174. , , , , , , . Isolated Rosai Dorfman disease of the central nervous system presenting as dural-based and intraparenchymal lesions. Clin Neuropathol. 2005;24:112-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  175. , , , , . Intracranial Rosai Dorfman disease: Report of three cases and literature review. Asian J Neurosurg. 2010;5:19-30.
    [Google Scholar]
  176. , , . Advanced imaging of intracranial meningiomas. Neurosurg Clin. 2016;27:137-43.
    [Google Scholar]
  177. , , , , , , . Systemic Rosai-Dorfman disease with central nervous system involvement. Int J Neurosci. 2018;128:192-7.
    [Google Scholar]
  178. , , , , , . Squash cytology of RosaiDorfman disease in the sellar region. Acta Cytol. 2003;47:1143-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  179. , , , , , . Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) treated with 2 chlorodeoxyadenosine. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006;47:612-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  180. , , , , , . Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease. Case Rep Neurol Med. 2016;2016:1972594.
    [Google Scholar]
  181. , , , , , . A case report of meningeal RosaiDorfman disease associated with IgG4-related disease. Clin Neuropathol. 2015;34:343-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  182. , , , . Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease involving the meninges in a 79-year-old man. Ann Saudi Med. 2006;26:474-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  183. , , . Teaching NeuroImage: Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking a meningioma. Neurology. 2008;70:e42.
    [Google Scholar]
  184. , , , , . Intracranial RosaiDorfman disease mimicking multiple meningiomas in a child: A case report and review of the literature. Child’s Nerv Syst. 2015;31:317-23.
    [Google Scholar]
  185. , , , , , , . RosaiDorfman disease involving the central nervous system: Seven cases from one institute. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2015;157:1565-71.
    [Google Scholar]
  186. , , , , , . Radiotherapy for steroid-resistant laryngeal Rosai-Dorfman disease. Curr Oncol. 2011;18:e158-62.
    [Google Scholar]
  187. , , , , , . RosaiDorfman disease with dural sinus invasion. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg. 2005;102:550-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  188. , , , . Complications of surgical treatment of Rosai-Dorfman disease: A case report and review. Surg Neurol Int. 2012;3:1.
    [Google Scholar]
  189. , , , , , . Enfermedad de Rosai-Dorfman intracraneal: Presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura. Neurocirugia. 2011;22:255-60.
    [Google Scholar]
  190. , , , . Novel presentation of Rosai-Dorfman histiocytosis with a prolonged course of cranial and peripheral neuropathies. Pediatr Neurol. 2017;71:70-2.
    [Google Scholar]
  191. . Dural involvement in sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1984;60:850-2.
    [Google Scholar]
  192. , , , , , , . CT-guided interstitial HDR brachytherapy for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Long-term results. Strahlenther Onkol. 2007;183:563-70.
    [Google Scholar]
  193. , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease of the subdural spine with a long segment lesion: A case report and literature review. J Int Med Res. 2017;45:875-81.
    [Google Scholar]
  194. , , , , , , . Spinal cord compression as a result of Rosai-Dorfman disease of the upper cervical spine in a child. Childs Nerv Syst. 2005;21:951-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  195. , , , , , . Giant intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease. J Clin Neurosci. 2004;11:563-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  196. , , , . RosaiDorfman disease presenting multiple intracranial lesions with unique findings on magnetic resonance imaging. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1999;91:335-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  197. , , , , . Updates on histiocytic disorders. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61:1329-35.
    [Google Scholar]
  198. , , , , , . Pontine Rosai-Dorfman disease in a child. Childs Nerv Syst. 2015;31:971-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  199. , , , , , , . MR imaging of cerebral involvement of RosaiDorfman disease: A single-centre experience with review of the literature. Radiol Med. 2021;126:89-98.
    [Google Scholar]
  200. , , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease with massive intracranial involvement: Asymmetric response to conservative therapy. J Neuroimaging. 2011;21:194-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  201. , , , . Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease with the petroclival and parasellar involvement mimicking multiple meningiomas: A case report and review of literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98:e15548.
    [Google Scholar]
  202. , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting with isolated bilateral orbital masses: report of two cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001;22:1386-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  203. , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease isolated to the central nervous system: A report of six cases. Neuropathology. 2010;30:154-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  204. , , , , . RosaiDorfman disease with central nervous system involvement. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2012;10:196-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  205. , , , , , , . Radiological and clinical findings of isolated meningeal RosaiDorfman disease of the central nervous system. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98:e15365.
    [Google Scholar]
  206. , , . Sinus histiocytosis (Rosai-Dorfman disease) of the suprasellar region: MR imaging findings--a case report. Radiology. 1999;213:808-10.
    [Google Scholar]
  207. , . May 2002: 38-year-old man and 69-year-old woman with dural based masses. Brain Pathol. 2002;12:517-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  208. , . Rosai-Dorfman disease: A rare lesion with dura tail sign mimicking spinal meningioma. Spine J. 2014;14:3058-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  209. , , . A report of intracranial RosaiDorfman disease with literature review. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2001;5:96-102.
    [Google Scholar]
  210. , , , . Intracranial RosaiDorfman disease: Case report and literature review. Eur J Radiol Extra. 2010;76:e75-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  211. , , , , , , . Bone marrow findings in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome with germline FAS mutation. Haematologica. 2017;102:364-72.
    [Google Scholar]
  212. , , , , . Isolated intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease mimicking petroclival meningioma in a child. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8754.
    [Google Scholar]
  213. , , , , , , . An intramedullary cervical cord lesion in a 12-year-old girl. Neuropathology. 2013;33:582-5.
    [Google Scholar]
  214. , , , . Rosai-Dorfman disease associated with neurosensorial hearing loss in two siblings. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2004;68:1095-100.
    [Google Scholar]
  215. , , , , , . Isolated Rosai-Dorfman disease of intracranial meninges. Pathol Res Pract. 2006;202:165-70.
    [Google Scholar]
  216. , , , , . Perfusion MR imaging for differentiation of benign and malignant meningiomas. Neuroradiology. 2008;50:525-30.
    [Google Scholar]
  217. , , , . Primary intracerebral Rosai-Dorfman disease. J Clin Neurosci. 2010;17:1286-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  218. , , . Primary isolated intracranial RosaiDorfman disease: Report of a rare case and review of the literature. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2018;52:390-3.
    [Google Scholar]
  219. , , , , , , . 43 year old woman with left arm paralysis. Brain Pathol. 2018;28:1021-2.
    [Google Scholar]
  220. , , , , , , . RosaiDorfman disease: A retrospective analysis of 13 cases. Am J Med Sci. 2013;345:200-10.
    [Google Scholar]
  221. , , , , , , . Imaging characteristics of Rosai-Dorfman disease in the central nervous system. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:1265-72.
    [Google Scholar]
  222. , , , . Preliminary report of pulsed dose rate brachytherapy in head-and-neck cancer. Strahlenther Onkol. 2007;183:512-6.
    [Google Scholar]
Show Sections