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Case Report
2022
:13;
301
doi:
10.25259/SNI_566_2022

Postoperative 18F-FDG-PET/CT documents efficacy of selective peripheral denervation for treating cervical dystonia

Corresponding author: Isamu Miura, Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Shinjyuku-ku, Kawada-cho, 8-1, 162-8666. Tokyo, Japan. miura.isamu@twmu.ac.jp
Licence

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, transform, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

How to cite this article: Miura I, Horisawa S, Kawamata T, Taira T. Postoperative 18F-FDG-PET/CT documents efficacy of selective peripheral denervation for treating cervical dystonia. Surg Neurol Int 2022;13:301.

Abstract

Background:

Cervical dystonia, characterized by involuntary contraction of the cervical muscles, is the most common form of adult dystonia. We compared the preoperative versus postoperative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans to confirm the efficacy of selective peripheral denervation (SPD) for treating cervical dystonia.

Case Description:

A 38-year-old male with the right-sided cervical dystonia underwent a left pallidothalamic tractotomy. However, the involuntary neck movement persisted and correlated with the 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging that showed persistent FDG uptake in the right obliquus capitis inferior muscle. A subsequent SPD resulted in resolution of the dystonia that correlated with lack of further 18F-FDG-PET/CT uptake in the right obliquus capitis inferior muscle.

Conclusion:

The postoperative 18F-FDG-PET/CT documented the efficacy of an SPD in resolving a patient’s cervical dystonia.

Keywords

18F-FDG-PET/CT
Cervical dystonia
Selective peripheral denervation
SPD

INTRODUCTION

Cervical dystonia, characterized by the involuntary contraction of the cervical muscles, is the most common form of adult dystonia. Preoperatively and postoperatively, dystonic muscles can be identified utilizing 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT).[2,3] Here, a patient underwent selective peripheral denervation (SPD) followed by resolution of dystonia and 18F-FDG-PET/CT findings thus confirming the effectiveness of the surgery.

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with dystonia at the age of 37. He was unsuccessfully treated with trihexyphenidyl, clonazepam, and BT injections. He underwent a left pallidothalamic tractotomy but failed to improve over 3 postoperative months. When he was referred for an SPD, his Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) score (range 0–85) was 27. FDG (317 MBq) was injected into the patient at rest. The 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging showed FDG uptake in the right obliquus capitis inferior muscle [Figure 1].

Figure 1:: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography axial imaging. Preoperative image shows abnormally higher FDG uptake in the right obliquus capitis inferior (arrow) (a). Postoperative image shows the disappearance of FDG uptake in the right obliquus capitis inferior (arrow) (b).

Surgery

The patient underwent a C1 right hemilaminectomy, with intradural dissection of the C1 and C2 anterior rootles/removal of the dentate ligament [Figure 2]. Next, the space between the semispinalis capitis and cervicis was dissected to expose the posterior branches of the C-3 to C-6 spinal nerves. Following an SPD, the right rotation/dystonia of the neck improved and he was discharged 3 days later. Three months after discharge, the 18F-FDG-PET/CT showed complete disappearance of the increased FDG uptake in the right obliquus capitis inferior muscle [Figure 1]. Residual FDG uptake in the right splenius capitis and left sternocleidomastoid was treated with Botox injections. Six-month later, the patient’s TWSTRS score improved to 5 and he was and remains asymptomatic.

Figure 2:: Perioperative image of selective peripheral denervation. The arrow shows the C1 anterior rootlet. Afterward, this nerve was cut.

DISCUSSION

SPD is an effective treatment operation for cervical dystonia.[4,5] Preoperatively and postoperatively, dystonic muscles are readily detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT and SPECT/CT.[1-3] In the present case, an abnormal FDG uptake in the right obliquus capitis inferior was detected through preoperative 18F-FDG-PET/CT. Following an SPD including an intradural rhizotomy of the anterior C1 and C2 nerve roots, the patient became asymptomatic. The 18F-FDG PET/ CT confirmed the disappearance of the abnormal uptake in the right obliquus capitis inferior 3 postoperative months.

CONCLUSION

Here, we presented a patient whose cervical dystonia resolved following an SPD as confirmed by a postoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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